Ghirardi-Pasco-Verger Geomorphological Map of the Mars

Authors: Raymond Ghirardi, Xavier Pasco, Isabelle Surbès Verger



  • Atlas de géographie de l’espace 1997, 1999
  • L’espace, nouveau territoire Atlas des satellites et des politiques spatiales. Belin, 2002
  • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Space: Missions, Applications and Exploration. Cambridge University Press, 2003



Barabashev’s drawing of Mars


Reproduced in Kulin-Zerinváry: A távcső világa. Budapest, 1958.

Courtesy of I. Almar


” In the 1920-1926 yrs. with the help of a 270-millimeter reflector NP Barabashov conducted a large number of visual observations of Mars in different spectral ranges, the result of which was the compilation of a map of the planet’s surface.” (Wikipedia, Russian version)


Maunder’s test map of Mars (1903)

Drawn by: Edward Walter Maunder

Evans, J. E. & Maunder, E. W.: Experiments as to the actuality of the “Canals” observed on Mars. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 63, p.488-499. June 1903

This experiment was to test the real existence of canals on Mars.

“Drawing 6*25 inches based upon one by Professor Schiaparelli made 1890 May 16 {La Planète Meurs, p. 474). In this experiment none of the canals shown by Professor Schiaparelli were inserted, but a number of small irregular markings were inserted at haphazard.”




Source: Zerinváry Szilárd: A Naprendszer élete. Művelt Nép Könyvkiadó, 1953, Budapest, p 186. Caption: “Maunder’s experiment. Students copied the drawing above from a distance and drew the maps below”


Lukács’s Copy of Lowell’s Map of the Polar cap of Mars (1904)

A Mars és a Föld összehasonlító topográfiája. Comparative topography of Mars and Earth. Lukács Károly 1904. Manuscript. Pencil and ink

A copy of another map, with signature “R de M” (?)

Lukács Károly: A sarki hósüvegek változásai a Marson és a Földön. Földrajzi Közlemények 1904. február, 11. füzet. 41-72



Original: Map of the South Pole of Mars, Showing the Polar Cap and its Changes, 1894. In:  MARS by Percival Lowell, 1895.



Lukács’ map of Mars (1904)

A Mars és a Föld összehasonlító topográfiája (Comparative topography of Mars and Earth, in Hungarian).

Drawn by: Lukács Károly 1904

Pencil and black ink.

Ca. 20×25 cm

Unpubl. manuscript.
Based on Flammarion and Antoniadi’s map but with somewhat more details and few more names.

Lukács Károly: A sarki hósüvegek változásai a Marson és a Földön. Földrajzi Közlemények 1904. február, 11. füzet. 41-72

(Charles Lukacs and Flammarion) Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France 1901 (1904?)


Geomorphological map of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars


Authors about the project: “The map displays 52 main geomorphological units of which some are further subdivided. They include both well-established features (e.g. spur-and-gully morphology on trough walls, landslide scars, and deposits), and newly reported landforms (e.g. alluvial fans with dendritic channels, moraines in western Ius Chasma).”


Citation: Dębniak, K., Mège, D. and Gurgurewicz, J. 2017. Geomorphology of Ius Chasma, Valles Marineris, Mars. Journal of Maps 13 (2): 260–269.

Link to better to paper and PDF version of the maps