Littrow 1878

Littrow JJ, Littrow Karl 1878 Die Wunder des Himmels. Berlin, Verlan von Gustav Hempel. Sechste auflagelittrow1878.jpg

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Lohrmann’s Map of the Moon

Cartographer: Wilhelm Lohrmann

Title: Topographie der sichtbaren Mondoberflaeche (Topography of the Visible Lunar Surface) Dresden: Auf Kosten des Verfassers, 1824.

25 sheets, hachure relief visualization and multiple gray shadings for albedo

1824 4 sheets

Size  227 × 227 mm

1878 Full atlas published by Julius Schmidt, reissued in  1892  Mondkarte in 25 Sectionen und 2 Erlauterungstafeln / Herausgegeben von Dr. J.F.Julius Schmidt. — Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth (Arthur Meiner),1878/92.

Originals:

“Lohrmann was a professional cartographer and surveyor who undertook a lunar map based on his own micrometric measurements. Using a small Fraunhofer refractor, he determined the exact position of a number of control points on the moon, from which the positions of all other lunar features could be determined. He divided his map into 25 sections, and in 1824 he published the first four of these sections, along with an explanation of his methods. Although he worked for sixteen more years, and finished drawing all the sections, Lohrmann never did publish the remainder of the atlas. Fortunately, his great successor Julius Schmidt undertook to have the drawings engraved, and the complete Lohrmann atlas finally saw the light in 1878” (Source)

mond4.jpg

Image source

Full atlas available here

 

 

Mars Maps by Schiaparelli (1877-1890)

1877 (publ. 1878)

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

Alternative reproduction

schiaparelli__1877b

sciaparelli187778.jpg

Alternative reproduction

schiaparelli__1877a

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz durante l’opposizione del 1877. Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, 1878. p308- M. 1. ser. 3. v. 2.

Mappa Aerographica 1876-77
Mercator/Stereographic Projection
G. V. Schiapparelli
The first appereance of the new nomenclature. This map suggests waterways and land.
Chromolithography

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

The above maps were based on these drawings

1879 (publ. 1881)

sciaparelli1879.jpg

schiaparelli__1879a

schiaparelli__1879b

 

Mappa Areographica 1879
Mercator Projection
G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz. (Osservazioni dell’opposizione 1879-1880). Roma, coi tipi del Salviucci 1881. Rele Accademia dei Lincei Anno CCVXXVIII. pp109

Nix Olympica is on the map which is the most detailed one of his age. The description uses the term canal.

1881-82 (publ.1886)

schiaparelli1881.jpg

schiaparelli__1881

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G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz (Opposizione 1881-1882. Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, 1886.

1883-84 (publ. 1896)

Mars 1883-84
Mercator Projection

schiaperelli_1884

schiaparelli__1883

Source
G. V. Sciapparelli: Memoria 6: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sulla topografia e costituzione del pianeta Marte …Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali della R. Accademia dei Lincei, ser.3, v. 2, l0; ser.4, v. 3; ser.5, v. 2, 3. Roma 1896.

 

1886 (publ. 1897)

schiaparelli1886.jpg

schiaparelli__1886a

schiaparelli__1886b

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del Pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz (Opposizione del 1886). Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, ser.5a:v.2 (1897). p 425-

1888 (publ. 1899)

sciaparelli1888.jpg

schiaparelli__1888a

 

schiaparelli__1888b

 

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia e constituzione del Pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz-Repsold (18 pollici) durante l’opposizione del 1888.  Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche … ser. 5, v. 3 (1899). p 187-

1890 (publ. 1910)

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

 

schiaparelli__1890a

schiaparelli__1890b

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia e constituzione del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz-Respold durante l’opposizione del 1890. Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche … ser. 5, v. 8 (1910). p 101-

sciaparelli1890

Observation in 1890. G. Schiaparelli: Il Pianeta Marte. 1893. Natura ed Arte. 5/6 p41

 

Source of images

Popular reproductions

“1877-1888” (1893 repr)

Showing single and twin lines

mars1888sciaparelli

French edition

schiaparelli_1877.jpg

Italian map. The same maps appeared in: G. Schiaparelli: Il Pianeta Marte. 1893. Natura ed Arte. 5/6 p41

schiaparelli_simple

Flammarion, C (1892) La planete Mars et ses condtions d’habilité. Paris, Gauthier-Villars et fils, Imprimeurs-libraries de l’observatoire de Paris.

flammrion_doublees.jpg

Flammarion, C (1892) La planete Mars et ses condtions d’habilité. Paris, Gauthier-Villars et fils, Imprimeurs-libraries de l’observatoire de Paris.

 

DSC_0101DSC_0102

Another Italian reproduction from “Le Piu Belle Pagine di Astronomia Popolare, Editore Ulrico Hoepli Milano 1953”.

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German Edition

schiaparelli_ru

Russian Edition

 

 

schiaparelli-pallas

The Hungarian edition from Pallas Nagylexikon

marstwincanals

Italian edition, showing the twin canals

1891 repr.

schiaparelli_1891

US Edition, in: Peck, W. 1891; A popular handbook and atlas of astronomy, designed as a complete guide to a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and as an aid to those possessing telescopes; New York

Reproduction courtesy Ton Lindemann

 

 

1898 reproduction

Reproduction in Flammarion, C. 1898(?); De wonderen des hemels; Zutphen

schiaparelli_1877b

schiaparelli_1886_flammarion

Flammarion, C (1892) La planete Mars et ses condtions d’habilité. Paris, Gauthier-Villars et fils, Imprimeurs-libraries de l’observatoire de Paris. schiaparelli_fig194_flammarion

 

 

Source of originals: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008920018

Proctor’s Mars Maps (1865-1892)

Cartographer: R. A. Proctor
Projection: Stereographic

1864

proctor_1865

Chart of Mars
R. A. Proctor; using drawings by W. R. Dawes 1864/65
The names like Dawes Sea can be viewed as „the seas in Dawes’ drawing”

1867

proctor_1867

1867.  Source: Rudaux, L. et al 1962; Larousse Encyclopaedia Of Astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

 

1869

proctor_1869

 

RA Proctor: Half-hours with the Telescope. London 1869. p. 6.

1870

proctor1870

A Chart of Mars laid down on the Stereographic Projection
R. A. Proctor, from drawings by Dawes.
in: RA Proctor: Other Worlds than Ours. London 1870, p 94.

1871

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Drawing of 1868 published in 1871, 1892.

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Other Worlds than Ours 1901.

1873

proctor_dawes

Map based on the drawings of William R Daves

“Chart of Mars from Drawings of Mr. Dawes”
Comments: “In Plate 6 I have given a series of views of Mars much more distinct than an observer may expect to obtain with moderate powers. I add a chart of Mars, a 83miniature of one I have prepared from a charming series of tracings supplied me by Mr. Dawes. The views taken by this celebrated observer in 1852, 1856, 1860, 1862, and 1864, are far better than any others I have seen. The views by Beer and Mädler are good, as are some of Secchi’s (though they appear badly drawn), Nasmyth’s and Phillips’; Delarue’s two views are also admirable; and Lockyer has given a better set of views than any of the others. But there is an amount of detail in Mr. Dawes’ views which renders them superior to any yet taken. I must confess I failed at a first view to see the full value of Mr. Dawes’ tracings. Faint marks appeared, which I supposed to be merely intended to represent shadings scarcely seen. A more careful study shewed me that every mark is to be taken as the representative of what Mr. Dawes actually saw. The consistency of the views is perfectly wonderful, when compared with the vagueness and inconsistency observable in nearly all other views. And this consistency is not shown by mere resemblance, which might have been an effect rather of memory (unconsciously exerted) than observation. The same feature changes so much in figure, as it appears on different parts of the disc, that it was sometimes only on a careful projection of different views that I could determine what certain features near the limb represented. But when this had been done, and the distortion through the effect of foreshortening corrected, the feature was found to be as true in shape as if it had been seen in the centre of the planet’s disc.
In examining Mr. Dawes’ drawings it was necessary that the position of Mars’ axis should be known. The data for determining this were taken from Dr. Oudemann’s determinations given in a valuable paper on Mars issued from Mr. Bishop’s observatory. 84But instead of calculating Mars’ presentation by the formulæ there given, I found it convenient rather to make use of geometrical constructions applied to my ‘Charts of the Terrestrial Planets.’ Taking Mädler’s start-point for Martial longitudes, that is the longitude-line passing near Dawes’ forked bay, I found that my results agreed pretty fairly with those in Prof. Phillips’ map, so far as the latter went; but there are many details in my charts not found in Prof. Phillips’ nor in Mädler’s earlier charts.
I have applied to the different features the names of those observers who have studied the physical peculiarities presented by Mars. Mr. Dawes’ name naturally occurs more frequently than others. Indeed, if I had followed the rule of giving to each feature the name of its discoverer, Mr. Dawes’ name would have occurred much more frequently than it actually does.”
Source: Richard A. Proctor: Half-hours with the Telescope. New York:G.P. Putnam’s Sons. 1873.

1879

marsterkepe_proctor.jpg

A Mars térképe – Hungarian edition, Proctor’s map “After Dawes’ drawings”
In: Proctor: Más világok mint a mienk. Translated by Károly Császár. Természettudományi Kiadó Vállalat  Budapest 1879. (Free book for members of K.M: Természettudományi Társulat (Royal Society of Natural Science)

1882

proctor_1882

1882:  Gillet, J.A. et-al 1882; Astronomy for the use of schools and academies; New York = Gillet, J.A. et-al 1882; The heavens above; New York
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

1888

proctor_1888

Nouvelle carte de Mars, par Proctor en 1888.
Stereographic Projection
RA Proctor: Old and new astronomy. London-New York, 1888
With the nomenclature of 1869

1892

proctor_1892a

Proctor, R.A. 1892; Old and new astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

1892

proctor_1892b

 

Proctor, R.A. 1892; Old and new astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann