Karte des Mondes

In: Karl Wilhelm Valentiner, 1881, Astronomische Bilder, Leipzig

Author unknown.

kartedesmondes

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Mars Maps by Schiaparelli (1877-1890)

1877 (publ. 1878)

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

Alternative reproduction

sciaparelli187778.jpg

Alternative reproduction

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz durante l’opposizione del 1877. Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, 1878. p308- M. 1. ser. 3. v. 2.

Mappa Aerographica 1876-77
Mercator/Stereographic Projection
G. V. Sciapparelli
The first appereance of the new nomenclature. This map suggests waterways and land.
Chromolithography

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

The above maps were based on these drawings

1879 (publ. 1881)

sciaparelli1879.jpg

Mappa Areographica 1879
Mercator Projection
G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz. (Osservazioni dell’opposizione 1879-1880). Roma, coi tipi del Salviucci 1881. Rele Accademia dei Lincei Anno CCVXXVIII. pp109

Nix Olympica is on the map which is the most detailed one of his age. The description uses the term canal.

1881-82 (publ.1886)

schiaparelli1881.jpg

schiaparelli8182.jpg

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz (Opposizione 1881-1882. Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, 1886.

1883-84 (publ. 1896)

Mars 1883-84
Mercator Projection

schiaperelli_1884

Source
G. V. Sciapparelli: Memoria 6: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sulla topografia e costituzione del pianeta Marte …Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali della R. Accademia dei Lincei, ser.3, v. 2, l0; ser.4, v. 3; ser.5, v. 2, 3. Roma 1896.

 

1886 (publ. 1897)

schiaparelli1886.jpg

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia del Pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz (Opposizione del 1886). Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei, Memorie della Classe di Scienze Fisiche, Matematiche e Naturali, Roma, ser.5a:v.2 (1897). p 425-

1888 (publ. 1899)

sciaparelli1888.jpg

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia e constituzione del Pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz-Repsold (18 pollici) durante l’opposizione del 1888.  Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche … ser. 5, v. 3 (1899). p 187-

1890 (publ. 1910)

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali

G.V. Schiaparelli: Osservazioni astronomiche e fisiche sull’asse di rotazione e sulla topografia e constituzione del pianeta Marte fatte nella Reale Specola di Brera in Milano coll’equatoriale di Merz-Respold durante l’opposizione del 1890. Memorie della Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche … ser. 5, v. 8 (1910). p 101-

sciaparelli1890

Observation in 1890. G. Schiaparelli: Il Pianeta Marte. 1893. Natura ed Arte. 5/6 p41

Popular reproductions

“1877-1888” (1893 repr)

Showing single and twin lines

mars1888sciaparelli

French edition

schiaparelli_1877.jpg

Italian map. The same maps appeared in: G. Schiaparelli: Il Pianeta Marte. 1893. Natura ed Arte. 5/6 p41

schiaparelli_d

German Edition

schiaparelli_ru

Russian Edition

 

 

schiaparelli-pallas

The Hungarian edition from Pallas Nagylexikon

marstwincanals

Italian edition, showing the twin canals

1891 repr.

schiaparelli_1891

US Edition, in: Peck, W. 1891; A popular handbook and atlas of astronomy, designed as a complete guide to a knowledge of the heavenly bodies and as an aid to those possessing telescopes; New York

Reproduction courtesy Ton Lindemann

 

 

1898 reproduction

Reproduction in Flammarion, C. 1898(?); De wonderen des hemels; Zutphen

schiaparelli_1877b

 

 

 

Source of originals: https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008920018

Proctor’s Mars Maps (1865-1892)

Cartographer: R. A. Proctor
Projection: Stereographic

1864

proctor_1865

Chart of Mars
R. A. Proctor; using drawings by W. R. Dawes 1864/65
The names like Dawes Sea can be viewed as „the seas in Dawes’ drawing”

1867

proctor_1867

1867.  Source: Rudaux, L. et al 1962; Larousse Encyclopaedia Of Astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

 

1869

proctor_1869

 

RA Proctor: Half-hours with the Telescope. London 1869. p. 6.

1870

proctor1870

A Chart of Mars laid down on the Stereographic Projection
R. A. Proctor, from drawings by Dawes.
in: RA Proctor: Other Worlds than Ours. London 1870, p 94.

1871

proctormars

Drawing of 1868 published in 1871, 1892.

1873

proctor_dawes

Map based on the drawings of William R Daves

“Chart of Mars from Drawings of Mr. Dawes”
Comments: “In Plate 6 I have given a series of views of Mars much more distinct than an observer may expect to obtain with moderate powers. I add a chart of Mars, a 83miniature of one I have prepared from a charming series of tracings supplied me by Mr. Dawes. The views taken by this celebrated observer in 1852, 1856, 1860, 1862, and 1864, are far better than any others I have seen. The views by Beer and Mädler are good, as are some of Secchi’s (though they appear badly drawn), Nasmyth’s and Phillips’; Delarue’s two views are also admirable; and Lockyer has given a better set of views than any of the others. But there is an amount of detail in Mr. Dawes’ views which renders them superior to any yet taken. I must confess I failed at a first view to see the full value of Mr. Dawes’ tracings. Faint marks appeared, which I supposed to be merely intended to represent shadings scarcely seen. A more careful study shewed me that every mark is to be taken as the representative of what Mr. Dawes actually saw. The consistency of the views is perfectly wonderful, when compared with the vagueness and inconsistency observable in nearly all other views. And this consistency is not shown by mere resemblance, which might have been an effect rather of memory (unconsciously exerted) than observation. The same feature changes so much in figure, as it appears on different parts of the disc, that it was sometimes only on a careful projection of different views that I could determine what certain features near the limb represented. But when this had been done, and the distortion through the effect of foreshortening corrected, the feature was found to be as true in shape as if it had been seen in the centre of the planet’s disc.
In examining Mr. Dawes’ drawings it was necessary that the position of Mars’ axis should be known. The data for determining this were taken from Dr. Oudemann’s determinations given in a valuable paper on Mars issued from Mr. Bishop’s observatory. 84But instead of calculating Mars’ presentation by the formulæ there given, I found it convenient rather to make use of geometrical constructions applied to my ‘Charts of the Terrestrial Planets.’ Taking Mädler’s start-point for Martial longitudes, that is the longitude-line passing near Dawes’ forked bay, I found that my results agreed pretty fairly with those in Prof. Phillips’ map, so far as the latter went; but there are many details in my charts not found in Prof. Phillips’ nor in Mädler’s earlier charts.
I have applied to the different features the names of those observers who have studied the physical peculiarities presented by Mars. Mr. Dawes’ name naturally occurs more frequently than others. Indeed, if I had followed the rule of giving to each feature the name of its discoverer, Mr. Dawes’ name would have occurred much more frequently than it actually does.”
Source: Richard A. Proctor: Half-hours with the Telescope. New York:G.P. Putnam’s Sons. 1873.

1879

marsterkepe_proctor.jpg

A Mars térképe – Hungarian edition, Proctor’s map “After Dawes’ drawings”
In: Proctor: Más világok mint a mienk. Translated by Károly Császár. Természettudományi Kiadó Vállalat  Budapest 1879. (Free book for members of K.M: Természettudományi Társulat (Royal Society of Natural Science)

1882

proctor_1882

1882:  Gillet, J.A. et-al 1882; Astronomy for the use of schools and academies; New York = Gillet, J.A. et-al 1882; The heavens above; New York
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

1888

proctor_1888

Nouvelle carte de Mars, par Proctor en 1888.
Stereographic Projection
RA Proctor: Old and new astronomy. London-New York, 1888
With the nomenclature of 1869

1892

proctor_1892a

Proctor, R.A. 1892; Old and new astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

1892

proctor_1892b

 

Proctor, R.A. 1892; Old and new astronomy; London
Image courtesy Ton Lindemann

 

Leipzig Mondkarte (1881-1903)

Map of the Moon

Publisher/Cartographer: Richard Andree

Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, Leipzig (Germany)
Publisher: Bielefeld and Leipzig by Verlag Von Velhagen and Klasing.
Page 4
German/Latin nomenclature
Upside down (North down) orientation

leipzig_1881

1881 1st Edition

 

 

leipzig1903

1903 edition
Map size 38 cm x 24 cm.

 

andree_1900

The 1900 edition in English.

Image courtesy Ton Lindemann.