Maunder’s test map of Mars (1903)

Drawn by: Edward Walter Maunder

Evans, J. E. & Maunder, E. W.: Experiments as to the actuality of the “Canals” observed on Mars. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 63, p.488-499. June 1903

This experiment was to test the real existence of canals on Mars.

“Drawing 6*25 inches based upon one by Professor Schiaparelli made 1890 May 16 {La Planète Meurs, p. 474). In this experiment none of the canals shown by Professor Schiaparelli were inserted, but a number of small irregular markings were inserted at haphazard.”




Source: Zerinváry Szilárd: A Naprendszer élete. Művelt Nép Könyvkiadó, 1953, Budapest, p 186. Caption: “Maunder’s experiment. Students copied the drawing above from a distance and drew the maps below”


Lukács’s Copy of Lowell’s Map of the Polar cap of Mars (1904)

A Mars és a Föld összehasonlító topográfiája. Comparative topography of Mars and Earth. Lukács Károly 1904. Manuscript. Pencil and ink

A copy of another map, with signature “R de M” (?)

Lukács Károly: A sarki hósüvegek változásai a Marson és a Földön. Földrajzi Közlemények 1904. február, 11. füzet. 41-72



Original: Map of the South Pole of Mars, Showing the Polar Cap and its Changes, 1894. In:  MARS by Percival Lowell, 1895.



Lukács’ map of Mars (1904)

A Mars és a Föld összehasonlító topográfiája (Comparative topography of Mars and Earth, in Hungarian).

Drawn by: Lukács Károly 1904

Pencil and black ink.

Ca. 20×25 cm

Unpubl. manuscript.
Based on Flammarion and Antoniadi’s map but with somewhat more details and few more names.

Lukács Károly: A sarki hósüvegek változásai a Marson és a Földön. Földrajzi Közlemények 1904. február, 11. füzet. 41-72

(Charles Lukacs and Flammarion) Bulletin de la Société astronomique de France 1901 (1904?)


Flammarion and Antoniadi’s Map of Mars (1900-1910)

1900. Courtesy of Ton Lindemann. This map is largely based on the British Astronomical Association map 1896 but includes more polar latitudes.


Same map as above from a Russian encyclopedia. Новый энциклопедический словарь.  Брокгауза и Ефрона / [под общ. ред. К. К. Арсеньева]. Petrograd. n.d. СПб, 191(?). (c. 1915) 



Antoniadi’s map 1900  reprojected onto the shaded relief map of Mars. Courtesy of Ton Lindemann.


Antoniadi & Flammarion, C: Nouvelles Observations de Mars Faites a l’Observatoire de Juvisy. Bulletin de la Societe Astronomique de France et Revue Mensuelle d’Astronomie, de Meteorologie et de Physique du Globe, vol. 15, pp.345-355  1901

One of the first polar views of Mars.


Lowell’s map of Mercury (1902)

Source: P. Lowell:  New observations of the planet Mercury. 

Cambridge, J. Wilson and son, 1902. In Memoirs of the American academy of arts and sciences, n.8., v.12, no.4

The book also includes tens of drawings of Mercury.

According to the author, the planet is “covered with long narrow markings best explained as the result of cooling”, and Mercury “is a world as dead as the Moon, but differently brought to that condition”. The map shows an elliptical view because Lowell thought that Mercury is “an ellipsoid”.