Crater maps of Mars 1976

Geologic and crater sketch maps of Mars, all quadrangles.

In: Mutch et al. The Geology of Mars. 1976

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Mariner 9 Photomosaic Globe of Mars

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Mosaic made of 1500 Mariner 9 images. This is one of three globes each made manually.

Size: 48in. (121.9cm)

Date 1973

Material: paper photos on aluminum

6-foot copy: Displayed in  von Karman auditorium of the JPL campus in Pasadena,

4-foot copies:  On Display at the Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC (2017), California and Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

Description (source): “This photomosaic globe of Mars was produced at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory using photographs from the Mariner 9 spacecraft that imaged the red planet from orbit from 14 November 1971 to 27 October 1972. This globe represents not only the first photomosaic globe of Mars ever made, but the first such photomosaic made of any planetary body. Over 1500 photos were used to produce the original. Each image had to be computer processed to produce consistent shading and to give it the proper geometry for its placement on the globe, and then cut by hand so it could be mosaicked with other overlapping images without interfering with important surface features. The finished globe was then sprayed with a clear protective coating.The original globe was rephotographed in 452 rectangual segments so that copies could be made of the globe through a simple and straightforward process. The globes were completed in September 1973.”

“The originals varied enormously, of course, so once more the computer had to work them over. Finally, it turned out that rectangular photographs were useless because they couldn’t be fitted properly to a spherical surface. The computer couldn’t help with this part of the project; so the irregular pieces needed for actual gluing on the globes were laboriously cut by hand from the large photos.”

 

Cartographers: Elmer Christensen, aided by mathematician Sally Rubsamen, photomosaicist Earl Zimmerman, and photographer Duane Patterson.

References

  • Corneille P 2005 Mapping the planet Mars. Spaceflight 47, 270-274
  • Martian Map Makers.  Engineering and Science, 37 (1). pp. 8-9. ISSN 0013-7812 October 1973

 

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Earl Zimmerman assembling one of the 4-inch globes. NASA/JPL/Engineering and Science

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“Scientist Elmer Christensen (right) points to last photographic piece that completed the first photo-mosaic globe of Mars assembled at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Looking on is Edwin Pounder, manager of the Mariner 9 Mars project at JPL.” . September 1973. NASA 73-H-848

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“Gluing down a section is perhaps the most delicate step in the whole process. To do exact matching, a scalpel-like blade is used to trim ‘overlapping sections along feature lines, so that each blends imperceptibly with the others around it.” Engineering and Science

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The 6-inch large globe that represents the previous knowlegde of Mars showing albedo markings onto which photographs were glued. (Engineering and Science)

NASA Lunar Chart LPC-1

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Scale 1:10M

Third edition, February 2016

Two sheets: albedo (photomosaic) and DTM (colored hillshade)

Dataset: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera photomosaic / GLD100 DTM

Publisher: ASU

Second edition, 1979

Publisher: U.S. Defense Mapping Agency

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1st Edition, March 1970 

Prepared by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, United States Air Force, under the direction of the Department of Defense.

Price: 50 cents

Size: 26 x 38 in

LPC-1 was mosaicked from three 1:5M LMP-series charts (Lunar Earth Side, Far Side, Polar Charts).

“A special NASA edition of LPC-1 was issued in August 1970 in support of the 14th IAU General Assembly. Overprinted in purple were unofficial IAU names proposed by the IAU Lunar Nomenclature Committee. This special edition was printed in limited quantities and only file copies remain in existence.” (Source)

This edition contained the English names of major features that were removed in the next edition. It did not contain any landing sites yet. LPC-1 did not display any NASA logos.

(Images from the map collection of Stanford University)

 

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Fun fact:  This map shown above, sold for $16,100, was signed by a member from each Apollo crew that either flew to or landed on the Moon during missions that occurred between 1969 to 1972, the last year of the manned lunar program.
To represent their lunar orbit or lunar fly-by mission, the chart has been signed and inscribed by Stafford and Haise with: “Tom Stafford, Apollo X CDR [Commander]” and “Fred Haise, Apollo 13 LMP [Lunar Module Pilot]”, along white bottom border. Lunar landing crew members have each marked their landing area then signed and inscribed with: “Buzz Aldrin, Apollo XI LMP; Alan Bean, Apollo XII LMP; Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 LMP; Dave Scott, Apollo 15 CDR; Charles M. Duke, Jr., Apollo 16 LMP”; and “Gene Cernan, Apollo 17 CDR”. (Source)

 

Lunokhod-2 traverse map

Topograficheskaya Karta na rajon dejstviya Lunokhoda-2

VN-B-3-41-C
Krater Lemon’e
Crater Le Monnier
Lonokhod 2 traverse
Eksperimentalnij Obrazets
Кратер Пологий = Shallow crater
Мыс Дальний = Distant Cape
Борозда Прямая = Straight Furrow
Бухта Круглая = Round Bay
Мыс Ближный = Near Cape
Борозда Незаметная = Subdued Furrow
Холмы Встречные = Counterside Hills

April 1973
Published by: MIIGAiK, Moscow
100 copies
With Russian informal nomenclature

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Map provided courtesy of the USGS Flagstaff Library.