Mariner 6, 7 Globe of Mars


Mariner 6-7 photographs manually glued onto a globe showing terrestrial telescopic view based albedo markings of Mars.

“The Mariner 6 pictures make two horizontal rows above; the Mariner 7 pictures extend from center to bottom right and across the south polar cap.” (Source)


Mariner 9 Photomosaic Globe of Mars


Mosaic made of 1500 Mariner 9 images. This is one of three globes each made manually.

Size: 48in. (121.9cm)

Date 1973

Material: paper photos on aluminum

6-foot copy: Displayed in  von Karman auditorium of the JPL campus in Pasadena,

4-foot copies:  On Display at the Smithsonian Museum, Washington, DC (2017), California and Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio.

Description (source): “This photomosaic globe of Mars was produced at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory using photographs from the Mariner 9 spacecraft that imaged the red planet from orbit from 14 November 1971 to 27 October 1972. This globe represents not only the first photomosaic globe of Mars ever made, but the first such photomosaic made of any planetary body. Over 1500 photos were used to produce the original. Each image had to be computer processed to produce consistent shading and to give it the proper geometry for its placement on the globe, and then cut by hand so it could be mosaicked with other overlapping images without interfering with important surface features. The finished globe was then sprayed with a clear protective coating.The original globe was rephotographed in 452 rectangual segments so that copies could be made of the globe through a simple and straightforward process. The globes were completed in September 1973.”

“The originals varied enormously, of course, so once more the computer had to work them over. Finally, it turned out that rectangular photographs were useless because they couldn’t be fitted properly to a spherical surface. The computer couldn’t help with this part of the project; so the irregular pieces needed for actual gluing on the globes were laboriously cut by hand from the large photos.”


Cartographers: Elmer Christensen, aided by mathematician Sally Rubsamen, photomosaicist Earl Zimmerman, and photographer Duane Patterson.


  • Corneille P 2005 Mapping the planet Mars. Spaceflight 47, 270-274
  • Martian Map Makers.  Engineering and Science, 37 (1). pp. 8-9. ISSN 0013-7812 October 1973



Earl Zimmerman assembling one of the 4-inch globes. NASA/JPL/Engineering and Science


“Scientist Elmer Christensen (right) points to last photographic piece that completed the first photo-mosaic globe of Mars assembled at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Looking on is Edwin Pounder, manager of the Mariner 9 Mars project at JPL.” . September 1973. NASA 73-H-848


“Gluing down a section is perhaps the most delicate step in the whole process. To do exact matching, a scalpel-like blade is used to trim ‘overlapping sections along feature lines, so that each blends imperceptibly with the others around it.” Engineering and Science


The 6-inch large globe that represents the previous knowlegde of Mars showing albedo markings onto which photographs were glued. (Engineering and Science)

Relief Dome of Enceladus with Active Plumes

Creative Director: Dan Goods
Sculptor: Joby Harris
Technical Integration: Shawn Jackson
Fabricator: Fernando Escala at E Creative Group



The Enceladus Half Dome exhibited at DPS/EPSC Pasadena, 2016.

Description: a working 3D relief model of Enceladus, showing active water vapor geysers/plumes.

Cartography: The model was sculpted as close to being topographically correct as possible. The cartographic base was the Enceladus photomosaic map from the Cassini mission.

Project idea: The Half Dome was made to the request of planetary scientists working on Saturn / the Cassini Team.

Material, technique: The Enceladus Half Dome was sculpted in clay spread over a large 55” foam half dome. The clay half dome was then molded and recreated in fiberglass.  Inside the base that the model sits on are two tanks with vibrating ceramic discs inside that create a soft mist out of water. Small fans equally controlled by an automatic timer pull the mist up through ventilation tubes and out of small holes in crevices sculpted on the Enceladus model surface.

Different phases of the Dome’s construction. 

Dickert’s Moon Globe

Location:  Bonn, Germany, 1850, transported to the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago (189x-190x)

Constructed by Th. Dickert. (Bonn, Germany) and JF Julius Schmidt (Athens, Greece).

Size: 19.2 feet (diameter)

Scale 1:600,000

Material: Yellow-matte plaster with 3x vertical exaggeration

Topography after Mädler


The original exhibit, in Bonn. Illustrirte Zeitung 589, Oct 14, 1854.


Source: OC Farrington: The Moon. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 1925.



Tactile Globe of the Moon

Authors: Amelia Ortiz-Gil (University of Valencia, Spain), Fernando Ballesteros (University of Valencia, Spain), and Alberto Fernández-Soto (Instituto de Física de Cantabria, Spain).

Note: The globe is is not a topological representation of the Moon but a kind of tactile translation of the visual image specially designed for people with vision impairments.

Contact address for requesting 3D printer files for reproducing the globe:

Dr. Amelia Ortiz-Gil
Observatorio Astronómico – Universidad de Valencia
Edifici Instituts d’Investigació.
c/ Catedrático José Beltrán,2

E- 46980 Paterna (Valencia)

Tel. +34 96 354 3745
Fax. +34 96 354 3744