Flammarion and Antoniadi’s Map of Mars (1900-1910)

1900. Courtesy of Ton Lindemann. This map is largely based on the British Astronomical Association map 1896 but includes more polar latitudes.


Same map as above from a Russian encyclopedia. Новый энциклопедический словарь.  Брокгауза и Ефрона / [под общ. ред. К. К. Арсеньева]. Petrograd. n.d. СПб, 191(?). (c. 1915) 



Antoniadi’s map 1900  reprojected onto the shaded relief map of Mars. Courtesy of Ton Lindemann.


Antoniadi & Flammarion, C: Nouvelles Observations de Mars Faites a l’Observatoire de Juvisy. Bulletin de la Societe Astronomique de France et Revue Mensuelle d’Astronomie, de Meteorologie et de Physique du Globe, vol. 15, pp.345-355  1901

One of the first polar views of Mars.



NASA Lunar Chart LPC-1


Scale 1:10M

Third edition, February 2016

Two sheets: albedo (photomosaic) and DTM (colored hillshade)

Dataset: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera photomosaic / GLD100 DTM

Publisher: ASU

Second edition, 1979

Publisher: U.S. Defense Mapping Agency


1st Edition, March 1970 

Prepared by the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center, United States Air Force, under the direction of the Department of Defense.

Price: 50 cents

Size: 26 x 38 in

LPC-1 was mosaicked from three 1:5M LMP-series charts (Lunar Earth Side, Far Side, Polar Charts).

“A special NASA edition of LPC-1 was issued in August 1970 in support of the 14th IAU General Assembly. Overprinted in purple were unofficial IAU names proposed by the IAU Lunar Nomenclature Committee. This special edition was printed in limited quantities and only file copies remain in existence.” (Source)

This edition contained the English names of major features that were removed in the next edition. It did not contain any landing sites yet. LPC-1 did not display any NASA logos.

(Images from the map collection of Stanford University)



Fun fact:  This map shown above, sold for $16,100, was signed by a member from each Apollo crew that either flew to or landed on the Moon during missions that occurred between 1969 to 1972, the last year of the manned lunar program.
To represent their lunar orbit or lunar fly-by mission, the chart has been signed and inscribed by Stafford and Haise with: “Tom Stafford, Apollo X CDR [Commander]” and “Fred Haise, Apollo 13 LMP [Lunar Module Pilot]”, along white bottom border. Lunar landing crew members have each marked their landing area then signed and inscribed with: “Buzz Aldrin, Apollo XI LMP; Alan Bean, Apollo XII LMP; Edgar Mitchell, Apollo 14 LMP; Dave Scott, Apollo 15 CDR; Charles M. Duke, Jr., Apollo 16 LMP”; and “Gene Cernan, Apollo 17 CDR”. (Source)


Mottoni’s IAU Map of Mars (1941-52)

Coordinate system created using Juventae Fons observations for determinig rotation and 260 control points by Camichel.  40 was used in this map.

This map was made by Dr. de Mottoni (Giardini Glauco de Mottoni y Palacios), and presented at the 1958 Moscow IAU meeting. It represents the avegare positions of surface markings observed 1941-52.

Source: A. Dollfus: Visual and photographic studies off planets at the Pic du Midi. In: Planets and Satellites, GP Kuiper and B Middlehurst, eds. Chicago Univ Press 543-571.

* *



Two of the original drawings, using control points


Measurements made at Pic du Midi 1941-54 by H. Camichel. Of 260 control points, 38 were used in the map.

The map was produced from six “planisphere” maps by G. de Mottoni with the help of Pic du Midi photographs taken during 1941, 43, 46, 48, 50, 52 oppositions, respectively.

+60- -60 latitudes in Mercator, following Schiaparelly,  and polar azimuthal equidistant projection.

Source: Transactions of the International Astronomical Union, Moscow, August 12-20, 1958: Cambridge University Press, v. 10, pl. 1, p. 262.

NASA Mars Chart 1970 (Mariner 6-7 results)

US Army Topographic Command, Washington, D.C.
Advisors: Merton E Davies, JC Robinson, Bradford A Smith and the Mariner 6 and 7 Television Experiment Team.
Nomenclature: 1958 IAU
Note the handwritten notes of the Tharsis Montes.

The map was drawn by pencil and charcoal, by Charles Cross  (Morton 2002:50)

Morton O 2002 Mapping Mars. Picador, New York.


Map provided courtesy of the USGS Flagstaff Library.