Lohrmann’s Map of the Moon

Cartographer: Wilhelm Lohrmann

Title: Topographie der sichtbaren Mondoberflaeche (Topography of the Visible Lunar Surface) Dresden: Auf Kosten des Verfassers, 1824.

25 sheets, hachure relief visualization and multiple gray shadings for albedo

1824 4 sheets

Size  227 × 227 mm

1878 Full atlas published by Julius Schmidt, reissued in  1892  Mondkarte in 25 Sectionen und 2 Erlauterungstafeln / Herausgegeben von Dr. J.F.Julius Schmidt. — Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth (Arthur Meiner),1878/92.


“Lohrmann was a professional cartographer and surveyor who undertook a lunar map based on his own micrometric measurements. Using a small Fraunhofer refractor, he determined the exact position of a number of control points on the moon, from which the positions of all other lunar features could be determined. He divided his map into 25 sections, and in 1824 he published the first four of these sections, along with an explanation of his methods. Although he worked for sixteen more years, and finished drawing all the sections, Lohrmann never did publish the remainder of the atlas. Fortunately, his great successor Julius Schmidt undertook to have the drawings engraved, and the complete Lohrmann atlas finally saw the light in 1878” (Source)


Image source

Full atlas available here




The System of Lunar Craters (1963-1966)

Reference map showing IAU nomenclature, south-up, orthographic projection.

Arthur DWG, Agnieray AP, Horvath RA, Wood CA, Chapman CR 1963 The System of Lunar Craters, Quadrant I. Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 2 (30).

Published in Communications of the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory 30, 40,50,70, 1963-66

Quadrant I

Quadrant II

Quadrant IV

Also available in the Moon Wiki



Legend (A2 sheet) (Source)



Wilkins’ maps of the Moon


Photo: LPOD Sep15 2008.

Cartographer: H Percy Wilkins, “the last traditional selenographer”

Editions: Early edition with hand lettering, later editions with sans serif and grid.

South-up orientation. Orthographic projection.

60 inch map: 1924

200 inch map: 1930

300 inch map of the Moon First edition, 1946.  Third edition, 1951, revisions in 1952, 1954.

25 map sheets, Scale 21.6 miles per inch.

Compiled from personal observations starting in 1909.


200-inch edition


300-inch edition including polar and far side views. This image is compiled by H. Hargitai from the Strolling Astronomer publication (100 inch reduction).


A single sheet from the 200-inch edition.



The 300-inch edition with north-up orientation. Neil Armstrong and Dr H P Wilkins  at the Royal Geographical Society, London. (source)


Reduced edition 1952 (?) (Source)



R.A.Wells’ Map of Mars (1971)

Publication Date: 1971
Based on: the text about Martian nomenclature by T.L. MacDonald
Published in: T.L. MacDonald: The origins of Martian nomenclature. Icarus Volume 15, Issue 2, October 1971, Pages 233-240  Web access
Language of nomenclature: Latin

Original map caption:
“Martian nomenclature sketch map prepared by H. A.Wells for identifying regions on Mars as discussed in the text. The authority for the locations of named areas are as follows: G. V. Schiaparelli, Il Pianeta Marte, Milano (1893): P. Lowell, Annals of the Lowell Observatory, Vol I (1898), Vol. II (1900), Vol. III (1905); E. M. Antoniadi, La Planete Mars, Hermann, Paris (1930): and T. L. MacDonald in that order. Wherever an area was in question or lacking in the maps from these observers, MacDonald’s accounting of the location is used. Some area names disagree with: those in later maps by other observers and current compilations by the A.C.I.C.; however, since the above-mentioned observers are the primary sources and since, as a contemporary, MacDonald represents one of the final links directly to these observers’ modes of thought, this version of nomenclature location is considered by R. A. Wells to be the most accurate. The location of surface features by cartographic coordinates is, of course, only approximate since a definitive system has yet to be devised (the Mariner 6 and 7 photos are now being processed to obtain a highly accurate coordinate system). South is placed at the top and longitude increases to the West in accordance with “astronomical” convention and for ease in reading the text.”