Glossary

Cartography

  • Albedo map shows the measured difference in surface reflectivity from the surface of celestial body.
  • Atlas is a special collection of images of a celestial body surface. The images may be from either ground-based or spacecraft sources. Usually a single scale or set of scales is used throughout the atlas. Atlases can have specific themes (e.g., photographic, specialized to certain problems, thematic, etc.).
  • Complex (integrated) atlas of groups of celestial bodies is a systematic collection of maps of a group of celestial bodies (e.g., the terrestrial planets, satellites of the gas-giant planets, etc.), giving a capability for the analysis of the collected information through comparative planetology.
  • Geochemical map shows the distribution of chemical elements or minerals on the surface of a celestial body.
  • Geologic map is a graphic representation generalizing the geological history of the area covered by the map. It includes information on the structure, distribution, age, and genetic type of rocks on the surface of the celestial body.
  • Geologic/morphologic map shows the spatial distribution of geologic, geomorphologic, and tectonic features on a celestial body.
  • Geomorphic (geomorphologic) map is a graphic representation of the distribution of surface morphological types portrayed in the landforms on a planetary body. Geomorphic maps do not attempt to infer the geologic history of the rocks themselves, but rather the processes that have generated the present surface features.
  • Geophysical map shows a variety of geophysical information in a spatial representation (such as gravimetric, seismic, and magnetic anomaly maps).
  • Globe is cartographic representation of the surface of a planetary body on a three-dimensional shape (which can be spherical or non-spherical, such as a tri-axial ellipsoid), preserving the geometric similarity of both locations and outlines features. Globes of spherical planets and irregular objects (e.g., the Martian moon Phobos, the asteroid Eros) have been produced from imaging and remote sensing data obtained from a variety of sources.
  • Hypsometric map shows the macro-relief features on a planetary surface (for maps produced in Russia – it corresponds to “topographic map” produced in the USA ). The relief is represented by means of contours or isolines (to show areas at the same relative elevation), and color-coded contour intervals. In other countries, this term can also describe the distribution of elevations on the extraterrestrial object.
  • Landing site map in planetary cartography is a graphic representation of the region surrounding the site where a spacecraft came to rest on a planetary surface (generally shown at large scale).
  • Map in planetary cartography is a generalized image of the surface of an extraterrestrial solid body (excluding the Earth), that indicates the location of objects projected mathematically according to the adopted coordinate system used for the projection. Symbols can represent any subject, phenomena or process chosen by the cartographer to be illustrated on the map (a legend defining all symbols should be included to aid the map user). Maps of extraterrestrial territories represent all solar system bodies, with the exception of the Earth; they can be portrayed in a variety of forms, such as electronic (e.g., digital), conventional (printed), multilingual, orthophoto, drawing (e.g., shaded relief), outline, topographic (contoured), and thematic.
  • Outline map in planetary cartography is a map representing relief with the help of outlines and special symbols. These maps are used as base-maps for thematic and schematic mapping, which allows the user to link visually a represented attribute with a relief feature on the surface.
  • Physical properties map is a maps of various measured attributes of the extraterrestrial surface, such as albedo (see albedo, in this section), thermal anomalies (e.g., the distribution of hotspots on the Earth-facing hemisphere of the Moon), and polarimetric measurements.
  • Synoptic map in planetary cartography is a graphic representation of attributes (e.g., pressure, temperature, etc.) that describe the weather above a planetary surface (e.g., a map of weather on Mars).
  • Tectonic map in planetary cartography is a graphic representation of structural elements related to the tectonic history of the upper crust of a planetary body. The different structural areas and their separate elements (e.g., faults and folds) are shown by various symbols; when combined with a geologic map, data regarding the age and type of rocks comprising the structural elements are given, along with their development in time.
  • Thematic map in planetary cartography is a map showing the spatial representation of physical properties for a planetary surface (e.g., hypsometric, geophysical, geologic-morphologic, and geochemical maps).
  • Terrain map in planetary cartography is a graphic representation of the distribution of boundaries between mapped regions on the planetary body, showing the presence or absence of characteristic details of a surface (e.g., impact craters, hills, faults, lava flows, aeolian cover, etc). Such maps are usually produced by data obtained by remote sensing. See also geologic/morphologic map, photogeologic map.
  • Topographic map see hypsometric map

 

Toponymy

  • Allonym: Each of two or more toponyms employed in reference to a single topographic feature. Example: Johannesburg, Egoli.
  • Bilingual: The use of two languages
  • Biscriptual: The use of two kind of script
  • Descriptive item: A word printed on a map which designates a topographic feature, but which does not constitute a toponym.
  • Descriptor term: see Generic element
  • Endonym: Name of a geographical feature in one of the languages occuring in that area where the feature is situated.
  • Eponym (ethnonym in French): Name of a person after or for whom a place is named. Example: Everest in Mount Everest
  • Epotoponym: A toponym which constitutes the basis or origin of a common noun. Example: Olympia (for Olympiad)
  • Exonym: Name used in a specific language for a geographical feature situated outside the area where that language has official status, and differing in its form from the name used in the official language or languages of the area where the geographical feature is situated. Example: Warsaw is the English exonym for Warszawa. The officially romanized Endonym Moskva for Москва is not exonym, nor is the pinyin form Beijing, while Peking is an exonym.
  • Feature class: Grouping of topographic features with similar characteristics, to facilitate classification, search and retrieval. Example: river
  • Gazetteer: List of toponyms with an indication of their location and preferably including variant names, type of topographic feature and other defining or descriptive information.
  • Gazetteer, multilingual: Gazetteer, which shows allonyms in different languages, not necessarily standardized.
  • Gazetteer, multiscriptual: Gazetteer, which presents toponyms in two (biscriptual) or more different types of script or writing system.
  • Generic element: That part of a toponym which consists of a generic term. Examples: Sierra in Sierrea Nevada. The Generic element does not necessarily indicate the type or class of  feature of the item named. In IAU/USGS terminology, it corresponds to “descriptor term”.See also false generic element.
  • Generic element, false: Generic element which does not indicate the feature class of the item named. Example: Rio in Rio de Janeiro
  • Generic term: A common noun which describes a topographic feature in terms of its characteristics and not by its proper name. Example: river
  • Homonym: Each of two or more identical toponyms denoting different topographic features.
  • Language, target: Language in terms of which a toponym may be adopted or transformed from its source language.
  • Logogram: Graphic symbol or combination of symbols which represent an entire free morpheme such as a word, without separately representing its constituent phonemes or syllables. Example: Japanese 山for san or yama (mountain)
  • Map, multilingual: Map which, for a particular topographic feature, shows allonyms in different languages, not necessarily standardized.
  • Map, miltiscriptual: Map which presents toponyms in who (biscriptual) or more types of script or writing systems.
  • Map script: Toponyms and other verbal and numerical items such as descriptive terms and spot and contour elevations in a map.
  • Name, alternative: see allonym
  • Name, approved: see name, standardized
  • Name, composite (name, compound): Toponym consisting of a generic element and a specific element, or  of a specific element consisting of more than one word. Example: Mount Cook
  • Name, historical: Toponym found in historical documentals and being no more in current use.
  • Name, place see toponym
  • Name, simplex: Single word toponym usually consisting of a specific component only.
  • Name, official: Toponym sanctioned by a legally constitued (e.g. national) names authority and applied within jurisdiction.
  • Name, standardized: Name sanctioned by a names authority as the preferred name from among a number of allonyms for a given feature.
  • Name, traditional: An exonym in relatively widespread use by a particular linguistic community and usually found in its tradition and literature.
  • Retranscription: Re-conversion of a result of transcription into the source language
  • Retransliteration: Re-conversion of a result of transliteration into the source script.
  • Reversibility: A characteristic of transliteration which permits a written item to be converted from one script into another, and subsequently to be reconverted back into the source script, the result being identical with the original.
  • Romanization: Conversion from non Roman into Roman script. Example: Москва into Moskva.
  • Romanization key: Table listing the characters of a non-Roman scrip together with corresponding letters of a Roman alphabet, including diacritics as required.
  • Specific element: That part of a toponym which does not constitute a generic term and which distinguishes it from others of the same feature class. It may include an article and / or other linguistic elements.
  • Survey, toponymic: The entire spectrum of activities involved in the collection, recording and processing of toponyms in a specified area
  • Toponym: Proper noun applied to a topographic feature.
  • Transcription:  A method of phonetic names conversion between different languages, in which the sounds of a source language are recorded in terms of a specific target language and its particular script, normally without recourse to additional diacritics.  Example: Budapest->Будапешт; Циолко́вский->Ciolkovszkij (in Hungarian); Percival Lowell->Πέρσιβαλ Λόουελ or -> Персиваль Лоуэлл. Transcription is not normally a reversible process. Retranscription (e.g. by computer) might result in a form differing from the original. Pinyin romanization of Chinese, although being a conversion between scripts, not being phonetic and non-reversible, is also regarded as transcription and not as transliteration.
  • Transcription key: Table listing the characters of a particular source language with the corresponding characters of a specific target language. Example: English sh for Hungarian s.
  • Transformation, names: In toponymy, general term covering the translation, transcription and transliteration of toponyms. The two latter terms constitute conversion.
  • Translation: The process of expressing meaning, presented in a source language, in the words of a target language. Example: Black Sea -> Mer Noire -> Чёрное море. In toponymy, it is sometimes applied only to the generic element of a name. Example: Blue Mountain -> Blue-hegység (in Hungarian).
  • Transliteration: A method of names conversion between different alphabetic scripts and syllabic scripts, in which each character or di-, tri- and tetragraph of the source script is represented in the target script in principle by one character or di-, tri-, or tetragraph, or a diacritic, or a combination of these. Transliteration, as distinct from trascription, aims at complete reversibility, and must be accompanied by a transliteration key.
  • Transliteration key: Table listing the characters of a particular source script together with the corresponding characters of a specific target script. Also called conversion table.

Sources

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